Research | United States


U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette use among high school students — United States, 1991-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2002;51(19);409-412. 17 May 2002.
Dalton MA, Tickle JJ, et. al. The incidence and context of tobacco use in popular movies from 1988 to 1997. Preventive Medicine. 2002;34:516-523. doi:10.1006/pmed.2002.1013. 1 May 2002.
Sargent JD, Dalton MA, Beach ML, Mott LA, Tickle JJ, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. Viewing tobacco use in movies: Does it shape attitudes that mediate adolescent smoking?. American Journal of Preventive Medicine. 2002;22(3):137-45. doi:10.1016/S0749-3797(01)00434-2. 1 April 2002.
Glantz SA. Rate movies with smoking 'R'. Effective Clinical Practice. 2002;5(1):31-34. 1 January 2002.
Woloshin S, Schwartz LM. Smoke-free movies: Sense or censorship?. Effective Clinical Practice. 2002;5(1):29-30. 1 January 2002.


Sargent JD, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Mott LA, Tickle JJ, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. Effect of seeing tobacco use in films on trying smoking among adolescents: Cross sectional study. British Medical Journal. 2001;323:1394. doi:10.1136/bmj.323.7326.1394. 15 December 2001.
Williams K, Glantz SA. Smoking in movies in 2000 exceeded rates in the 1960s. Tobacco Control. 2001;10(4):397–398. doi:10.1136/tc.10.4.397b. 1 December 2001.
Dixon HG, Hill DJ, Borland R, Paxton SJ. Public reaction to the portrayal of the tobacco industry in the film 'The Insider'. Tobacco Control. 2001;110(3):505-508. doi:10.1136/tc.10.3.285. 1 September 2001.
Pechmann C. A comparison of health communication models: Risk learning versus stereotype priming. Media Psychology. 2001;3(2):189-210. doi:10.1207/S1532785XMEP0302_04. 1 April 2001.
Tickle JJ, Sargent JD, Dalton MA, Beach ML, Heatherton TF. Favourite movie stars, their tobacco use in contemporary films, and its association with adolescent smoking. Tobacco Control. 2001;10(1):16–22. doi:10.1136/tc.10.1.16. 1 March 2001.
Sargent J, Tickle J, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Ahrens MB, Heatherton TF. Brand appearances in contemporary cinema films and contribution to global marketing of cigarettes. The Lancet. 2001;357(9249:29-32. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(00)03568-6. 6 January 2001.


Hines D, Saris RN, Throckmorton-Belzer L. Cigarette smoking in popular films: Does it increase viewers' likelihood to smoke?. Journal of Applied Social Psychology. 2000;30(11):2246–2269. doi:10.1111/j.1559-1816.2000.tb02435.x. 1 November 2000.