Research | United States


Dozier DM, Lauzen MM, Day CA, Payne SM, Tafoya MR. Leaders and elites: Portrayals of smoking in popular films. Tobacco Control. 2005;14:7-9. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.006205. 1 February 2005.


Mekemson C, Glik D, Titus K, Myerson A, Shaivits A, Ang A, Mitchell S. Tobacco use in popular movies during the past decade. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(4): 400–402. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.007211. 1 December 2004.
Ryan EL, Hoerrner KL. Let your conscience be your guide: Smoking and drinking in Disney's animated classics. Mass Communication & Society. 2004;7(3):261-278. doi:10.1207/s15327825mcs0703_1. 1 November 2004.
McCool JP, Cameron L, Petrie K. Stereotyping the smoker: Adolescents' appraisals of smokers in film. Tobacco Control. 2004;13(3):308–314. doi:10.1136/tc.2003.006791. 1 September 2004.
Distefan JM, Pierce JP, Gilpin EA. Do favorite movie stars influence adolescent smoking initiation?. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94(7):1239–1244. 1 July 2004.
Sargent JD, Beach ML, Dalton MA, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Tickle JJ, Heatherton TF. Effect of parental R-rated movie restriction on adolescent smoking initiation: A prospective study. Pediatrics. 2004;114(1):149-156. doi:10.1542/peds.114.1.149. 1 July 2004.
U.S. Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. Cigarette use among high school students — United States, 1991-2003. Morbidity and Mortality Weekly Report. 2004;53(23);499-502. 18 June 2004.
Glantz SA, Williams K, McCullough C. Back to the future: Smoking in movies in 2002 compared with 1950 levels. American Journal of Public Health. 2004;94(2):261–263. 1 February 2004.


Dalton MA, Sargent JD, Beach ML, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Ahrens MB, Tickle JJ, Heatherton JF. Effect of viewing smoking in movies on adolescent smoking initiation: A cohort study. The Lancet. 2003;362(9380):281-285. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)13970-0. 26 July 2003.
Sargent JD, Dalton MA, et. al. Modifying exposure to smoking depicted in movies: A novel approach to preventing adolescent smoking. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2003;157(7):643-648. doi:10.1001/archpedi.157.7.643. 1 July 2003.
Glantz SA. Smoking in movies: A major problem and a real solution. The Lancet. 2003;362(9380):258-259. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(03)14001-9. 10 June 2003.