Research | Ratings


Hanewinkel R, Sargent JD, Karlsdóttir S, Jónsson SH, Mathis F, Faggiano F, Poelen EAP, Scholte RHJ, Florek E, Sweeting H, Hunt K, Morgenstern M. High youth access to movies that contain smoking in Europe compared with the USA. Tobacco Control. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050050. 18 December 2011.
Glantz SA, Polansky JR. Movies with smoking make less money. Tobacco Control. 2011 OnlineFirst. doi:10.1136/tobaccocontrol-2011-050023. 26 September 2011.
Chapman S, Farrelly MC. Four arguments against the adult-rating of movies with smoking scenes. PLOS Medicine. 2011;8(8):e1001078. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001078. 23 August 2011.
Millett C, Polansky JR, Glantz SA. Government inaction on ratings and government subsidies to the U.S. film industry help promote youth smoking. PLOS Medicine. 2011;8(8):e1001077. doi:10.1371/journal.pmed.1001077. 23 August 2011.
Sargent JD. Conflicts of interest: When media conglomerates rate their productions. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2011;165(2):181-182. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2010.283. 1 February 2011.


de Leeuw RN, Sargent JD, Stoolmiller M, Scholte RHJ, Engels RCME, Tanski SEE. Association of smoking onset with R-rated movie restrictions and adolescent sensation seeking. Pediatrics. 2011;127;e96. doi:10.1542/peds.2009-3443. 6 December 2010.
Anderson SJ, Millett C, Polansky JR, Glantz SA. Exposure to smoking in movies among British adolescents 2001-2006. Tobacco Control. 2010;19:197-200. doi:10.1136/tc.2009.034991. 1 June 2010.
Millett C, Glantz SA. Assigning an ‘18’ rating to movies with tobacco imagery is essential to reduce youth smoking. Thorax. 2010;65:377-378. doi:10.1136/thx.2009.133108. 1 May 2010.


Tickle JJ, Beach ML, Dalton MA. Tobacco, alcohol and other risk behaviors in film: How well do MPAA ratings distinguish content?. Journal of Health Communication. 2009;14(8):756-67. doi:10.1080/10810730903295567. 21 December 2009.
Longacre MR, Adachi-Mejia AM, Titus-Ernstoff LT, Gibson JJ, Beach ML, Dalton M. Parental attitudes about cigarette smoking and alcohol use in the Motion Picture Association of America rating system. Archives of Pediatrics & Adolescent Medicine. 2009;163(3):218-224. doi:10.1001/archpediatrics.2008.550. 1 March 2009.